Types of Mediums



Allan Kardec, one of the greatest French educators who was born in the 1800s listed over 73 types of psychic mediums on the basis that some could produce intellect while some could show physical manifestations, how and what each of them could sense, their morality and how they release their personal energy. He published all these in The Book of Mediums, 1861. Most of these mediums have changed names over time. However, their attributes are still the same up to date. They include:

  • Physical mediums

These are mainly for those people who possess the rare abilities to obtain physical observations.

  • Intellectual mediums

These are for people who are quick at transmitting and receiving communications with a lot of carefulness and intelligently.

All these other varieties, however, rely on the two main kinds while a few belong to both categories. If we were to examine the different displays that were to be obtained from the influence of these mediums, we observe that in all of them there is an essence of physical effect combined with the known intelligent effect. It is in fact very difficult to differentiate between the two. This, however, has no effect on the practical application of such mediums.

  • Sensitive mediums

These are for people who are usually aware of the presence of beings usually by strange impressions. Most of these can tell the difference between evil and good spirits by use of perceived impressions. Mediums who are sensitive should desist from reaching out to spirits who are violent or with those that may cause painful impressions as they could be fatigued from such encounters.

  • Natural Mediums

Also called unconscious mediums, they have the ability to perform things without them knowing usually during unconsciousness. They are usually influenced without them knowing it. They have neither the idea whatsoever of the power they possess nor the abnormal occurrences which take place in their daily lives. Such mediums are worth observing and should be considered during the study of knowledge that may relate to them. Mediums of such kind are mostly children.

  • Voluntary mediums

These have the ability to call forward occurrences through their will. They exert their power on conscious minds and obtain spiritual phenomena as they wish.

Special mediums for the physical effect:

  • Rapping mediums

When in action, noises and raps are heard. These are one of the most common mediums. These noises and raps can happen either voluntarily or involuntarily.

  • Motor mediums

They influence the production of movement when connecting to the spiritual world. They are also very common.

  • Mediums for displacement and suspensions

They get displaced in the air whenever that comes into contact with these spirits without physical support. They are very rare to find.

  • Mediums for musical effects

They have the ability to play certain instruments without physical human contact. They are very rare to find as only a few people have this gift.

  • Mediums for apparitions

They have the ability of seeing or receiving visions whether in fluid form or even tangible form. The gift is exceptional to only a few mediums.

  • Mediums for transport of objects

These are that are tasked by the spirits as intermediaries to bring forth objects to a circle.

  • Nocturnal mediums

They can only get special effects while they are on the dark thus the name nocturnal. It is considered a specialty. The necessity of darkness in their practice is rather influenced by the present working conditions than the overall nature of the medium.

  • Pneumatographic mediums

They communicate through writings. It is also a very rare occurrence. The only disadvantage is they can be easily imitated by people with no such gift.

  • Healing mediums

They possess the power of either relieving pain or even curing certain illnesses by use of their hands or even conducting special prayers. This can only be found in true believers whether they are mediums or not.

  • Developing mediums

They can in one way or another develop the ability of magnanimity of others.

Special mediums for intellectual effects:

  • Hearing mediums

They hear voices of spirits what is only available in imaginations. They are very common

  • Speaking mediums

They speak under the influence of spirits and have no control of whatsoever they speak of. They are also very common.

  • Seeing mediums

Whenever they are awake, they see spirits. Seeing spirits at will is very rare and exceptional since all sightings are mostly accidental. However, believing them is difficult due to the nature of human organism.

  • Inspirational mediums

Their thoughts are influenced by the holy spirits mostly without them being fully aware of them whether it is related to the activities they carry out in their lives.

  • Presentient mediums

They have vague instincts of events that are to happen in the future and can make predictions

  • Prophetic mediums

They are usually inspired by mediums or even presentient mediums. They usually receive visions of future events, by God’s permission but with more accuracy than the presentient mediums. Although they may be considered as true prophets, there are many impersonators of such mediums.

  • Somnambulist mediums

They are usually assisted by spirits when they are in their somnambulic state.

  • Trance mediums

They receive revelations from the spirit world whenever they get into a state of trance. Just like the somnambulist mediums, spirits take advantage of their state of mental states to pass messages. They are very rare, just like the condition.

  • Painting and Drawing mediums

They either paint or draw under the influence of spirits. The painting or drawing usually attract attention due to their nature and have messages engraved on them from the spirit world.

  • Musical mediums

They compose and write music whenever the spirits want to communicate with the normal world. The spirits also influence and inspire them to pass literally communications.

Varieties of Writing Mediums:

  • Psychographic mediums

They can write under the influence of spirits.

  • Mechanical Writing Mediums

The hands are controlled by involuntary impulses to write. They are not usually aware of what they write. They are also very rare.

  • Semi Mechanical Mediums

Their hands are made to write involuntarily by the spirits though through consciousness. These are very common.

  • Intuitive Mediums

The spirit communicates through them although writing what they are told is of their own free will and liking. This is what separates them from inspirational mediums who do not write. They are so common. However, they are prone to a lot of errors as they cannot differentiate what comes from the spirit world and what they have from their brains.

  • Polygraphic Mediums

Their writing changes with the type of spirit communicating to them. Some of them even reproduce the handwriting of the spirit. They are very common, however, those that reproduce the handwriting are very rare.

  • Polyglot Mediums

These are those that can communicate in languages that they are not aware of either in writing or chanting. They are very rare.

  • Illiterate mediums

They read and write as mediums without knowing to do so in their ordinary state.

According to the Development of the Faculty:

  • Novice Mediums

Their medianimic faculty is yet to be completely developed and who usually lack experience.

  • Unproductive Mediums

The messages they receive from the spirit world are usually either incomplete or insignificant thus cannot be of important use.

  • Fully Formed Medians

They are completely developed mediums and can perform their transmissions and communications very easily. It is usually obtained through a lot of practice.

  • Laconic Mediums

Those who can only receive short and undeveloped communications. They can be easily influenced.

  • Explicit mediums

The type of messages got through these mediums are very clear and easy to understand by anyone.

  • Experienced Mediums

They usually come about as a result of extensive study of the aspects of the spirit world. The experience acquired enables the medium to judge the quality of the spirit or the message itself presenting itself confirming its bad or good qualities before making a decision.

  • Flexible mediums

They have the ability to interpret a great variety of communications from different spirits usually near all. They usually differ slightly too sensitive mediums.

  • Exclusive Mediums

These are mediums through which one spirit represents all the others when communicating to him or her. The spirit answers to all other spirits. This is usually as a result of defective flexibility of the medium or just sympathy from the spirit. Evil spirits may use this as an advantage to keep the medium to itself. Such exclusiveness is not advised.

  • Mediums for Evocations

They are the best to consult when one wants to address queries with a lot of detail. Their answers are usually confined.

  • Mediums who Receive Spontaneous Communications

They are used to pass unconstrained information given by the spirits without evocation. They are provided with better medianimic tools such as brain materials than the previously named mediums thus they have proved to be accurate.

According to Kind and Specialty of Communication

  • Verse-making mediums

They mostly obtain communication in verse form. Rhyming is one of their characteristics thus adopting poetry as a form of communication.

  • Positive Mediums

Though rare, they usually possess the quality of clarity and precision during transmission of circumstantial details and exact information.

  • Literary Mediums

They neither possess the indistinct nature of poetic mediums nor the dryness of positive mediums. They can be uniquely identified by their eloquence and style.

  • Incorrect Mediums

They use the style of ungrammatical communication with a lot of repetitions. However, they try to be sensible and moral during this time of delivery.

  • Historical Mediums

They use and treat historical objects or events to communicate. It all depends on the medium’s knowledge of such. It is often considered as a rare variety of positive mediums.

  • Scientific Mediums

They are used to obtaining and delivering scientific communications. Most of them are usually arrogant and rude due to the nature of their cause.

  • Medical Mediums

They act as interpreters of spirits during medical prescriptions. We must not wholly believe in these mediums for they only pass what the spirit thinks of as a cure and may not satisfy the required need for cure.

  • Religious Mediums

Are employed by spirits to tackle religious questions and beliefs. Their message may contradict their won spiritual beliefs and modes of worship.

  • Philosophic and Moralistic Mediums

Their deal with the attainment of morals and philosophical aspects of life. They are numerous.

  • Mediums for Trivial and Obscene Communications

This indicates the certain level and sort of communication that a group of mediums receive as well as the overall nature of the spirits that control their day to day activities.

According to the Physical qualities of the Mediums:

  • Calm Mediums

They have the quality of being less agile. They do their activities with a lot of caution i.e. writing slowly.

  • Rapid Mediums

They write with abnormal rapidity usually in their normal state. Spirits communicate with them at great speeds. This rapidity, however, affects the rendering of their writing since it’s very difficult to read what they write.

  • Convulsive Mediums

Whenever they receive a message, or they feel like they are to receive a message, they feel excited. This can be noted by trembling of the hand, or the whole body. This can be credited to how they are organized or even the nature of the spirit communicating to them. Gentle impressions are thought to be of the good spirits while bad spirits trigger painful excitements.

According to the Moral Quality of the Mediums – Imperfect Mediums:

  • Mediums who are Obsessed

Are those who cannot separate themselves from the deceptive spirits yet they are fully aware of the situation and even regret the obsession.

  • Fascinated Mediums

They are acted upon by some deceptive spirits. However, in their case, they are not aware of the obsession they have towards such spirits.

  • Subjugated spirits

They are dominated by evil spirits who control them.

  • Frivolous Mediums

They are never serious with their practice and usually do it for fun.

  • Careless Mediums

They get no profit morally from the directions they receive. This means that their habitual aspects never improve at all.

  • Presumptuous Mediums

They tend to believe that they are the only ones who are able to communicate with spirits. They despise anything that does not come from them.

  • Proud Mediums

They do not use the communications they receive to make statements. Instead, they apply what they know since they never feel contented with mediamnimic faculties.

  • Touchy Mediums

They are a part of the proud ones. They get hurt when their actions are criticized and take offense to anyone who contradicts them. Whatever they do, they do it to get attention arising from admiration and not to benefit from the opinion of the listeners.

  • Mercenary Mediums

They use their faculties for financial gains.

  • Ambitious Mediums

They turn communication from the spirits to favor them without putting a price on the exercise of their faculty duty.

  • Dishonest Mediums

They use their medium to mimic powers to stimulate others which they do not possess so as to gain the advantage.

  • Selfish Mediums

These use their faculties for personal gains and keep to themselves the communication they receive.

  • Jealous Mediums

They get annoyed when other mediums become successful and more appreciated than them.

Good Mediums:

  • Serious Mediums

They only use their faculties for useful purposes and not for personal gain.

  • Modest Mediums

Their communication has no merits. They look upon themselves as being the only channel of communication to others and strive to achieve their aspirations.

  • Devoted Mediums

They fully understand that all mediums have missions to fulfill and they must be ready to sacrifice everything for the greater good of others.

  • Safe Mediums

Those who go despite their gift, you can confidently account for the improved nature of the spirits they work with. They are unlikely to be deceived due to this quality


We must, therefore, understand that by classifying all these mediums, we are exposing ourselves to hate from a number of them. All mediums who misuse their gifts will have to be held accountable for their actions.


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